Battery Description
The battery has three major functions in the electrical system.
It is a source of electrical energy for cranking the engine.
It acts as a voltage stabilizer for the electrical system.
It can, for a limited time, provide energy when the electrical load exceeds the output of the generator.
Carrier and Hold-Down
The battery carrier should be in good condition so that it will support the battery securely and keep it level. Before installing the battery, the battery carrier and hold-down clamp should be clean and free from corrosion and make certain there are no parts in carrier.
To prevent the battery from shaking in its carrier, the hold-down bolts should be tight enough but not over-tightened.
Electrolyte Freezing
The freezing point of electrolyte depends on its specific gravity. Since freezing may ruin a battery, it should be protected against freezing by keeping it in a fully charged condition. If a battery is frozen accidentally, it should not be charged until it is warmed.
If the battery is allowed to stand for a long period in discharged condition, the lead sulfate becomes converted into a hard, crystalline substance, which will not easily turn back to the active material again during the subsequent recharging. “Sulfation” means the result as well as the process of that reaction. Such a battery can be revived by very slow charging and may be restored to usable condition but its capacity is lower than before.
Built-In Indicator (If Equipped)
The battery has a built-in temperature compensated indicator at the top of the battery. This indicator is to be used with the following diagnostic procedure. When checking the indicator, make sure that the battery has a clean top. A light may be needed in some poorly-lit areas.
Three types of indication available under normal operation are as follows.
Green dot
Battery is sufficiently charged for testing.
Battery must be charged before testing. If there is a cranking complaint, battery should be tested as described in Battery Inspection:M13A . Charging and electrical systems should also be checked at this time.
Clear or light yellow
This means that fluid level is below the bottom of hydrometer. Its possible cause is excessive or prolonged charging, a broken case, excessive tipping or normal battery deterioration. When the battery is found in such condition, it is possible that high charging voltage is caused by the faulty charging system and therefore, charging and electrical systems need to be checked. If there is a trouble in cranking and its cause lies in the battery, it should be replaced.
Care of Battery
Never expose battery to open flame or electric spark because of battery generate gas which is flammable and explosive.
Do not allow battery fluid to contact eyes, skin, fabrics, or painted surfaces as fluid is a corrosive acid. Flush any contacted area with water immediately and thoroughly.
Batteries should always be kept out of reach of children.
1) The battery is a very reliable component, but needs periodical attentions.
Keep the battery carrier clean
Prevent rust formation on the terminal posts
Keep the electrolyte up to the upper level uniformly in all cells.
When keeping battery on vehicle over a long period of time, follow instructions given below.
Weekly, start the engine and run it until it reaches normal operating temperature with engine speed of 2,000 to 3,000 rpm. Make sure all electric switches are off before storing the vehicle.
Recharge the battery twice a month to prevent it from discharging excessively. This is especially important when ambient temperature is low.
The battery discharges even when it is not used, while vehicles are being stored. Battery electrolyte can freeze and battery case can crack at cold ambient condition if battery is not properly charged.
2) Keep the battery cable connections clean.
The cable connections, particularly at the positive (+) terminal post, tend to become corroded. The product of corrosion, or rust, on the mating faces of conductors resists the flow of current.
Clean the terminals and fittings periodically to ensure good metal-to-metal contact, and grease the connections after each cleaning to protect them against rusting.
3) Be always in the know as to the state of charge of the battery. The simplest way to tell the state of charge is to carry out a hydrometer test. The hydrometer is an instrument for measuring the specific gravity (S.G.) of the battery electrolyte. The S.G. of the electrolyte is indicative of the state of charge. Refer to “Hydrometer Test” in Battery Inspection:M13A .